Steve Strand, Ariel Lindorff
For some considerable time there has been concern over the process of special education referral and the differential representation of
ethnic minority groups with Special Educational Needs (SEN) both in the US
(Dunn, 1968) and in England (Coard, 1971). Ethnic disproportionality exists when an ethnic group is significantly more, or significantly less, likely to be identified with SEN compared to the ethnic majority. A recent major review
concluded that disproportionate identification of Black pupils with SEN is “among the most long-standing and intransigent issues in the field” (Skiba et al, 2008, p264).